This page is obsolete. After going through many iterations in class notes, I decided to move everything to github. See the following packages. What you see below is correct AFAIK, but not my most recent (which is in the github packages above).

Calling C and Fortran from R


Why Call C or Fortran from R?

R is rotten at iterative algorithms that require loops iterated many times (especially Markov chain Monte Carlo), not as bad as S-PLUS, but still bad. A way to get all the speed advantages of C or Fortran with most of the convenience of R is to write the inner loop in C and call it from R.

This is a very brief introduction. For much more, read the chapters System and foreign language interfaces and The R API: entry points for C code in the book Writing R Extensions available (free) from CRAN.

C functions and Fortran subroutines callable from R

Here is a very simple C function (downloadable as foo.c).

void foo(int *nin, double *x)
	int n = nin[0];

	int i;

	for (i=0; i<n; i++)
		x[i] = x[i] * x[i];

which does nothing but square the elements of the n-vector x.

Notice two properties that are required for a function callable from R

Here is a Fortran function that does the same thing (downloadable as bar.f).

      subroutine bar(n, x)

      integer n
      double precision x(n)
      integer i

      do 100 i = 1, n
          x(i) = x(i) ** 2 
  100 continue


Notice it has the same two properties as the C function.

Compiling and Dynamic Loading

Put the C example code in a file foo.c and compile it to a shared library. The command

   R CMD SHLIB foo.c

in UNIX (outside of R) does this. Now the code can be dynamically loaded into R by doing (in R)


(note: the filename may be foo.sl on some computer architectures).

The Call to C

The actual call to C from R is made by the R function .C like this

   .C("foo", n=as.integer(5), x=as.double(rnorm(5)))

The function .C takes nargs + 1 arguments if the C function being called takes nargs arguments. The first argument is the name of the C function to be called, and the rest are the arguments to the function call. The arguments generally have to be coerced to the proper type using as.integer, as.double, and similar functions. The function .C returns a list whose elements are the arguments to the function call (in this case n and x). The values are the values after the call (as changed by the function foo).

For more on this subject see the R help for the .C function.

The Fortran is similar. In UNIX do

   R CMD SHLIB bar.f

and in R do

   .Fortran("bar", n=as.integer(5), x=as.double(rnorm(5)))

We just change the call from .C to .Fortran.

R Wrapper Functions

It is considered user-friendly to wrap the call to .C in an R function, like

   foo <- function(x) {
           if (!is.numeric(x))
                   stop("argument x must be numeric")
           out <- .C("foo",

This has three benefits

Now the call is much simpler, just


Using R Random Number Generators

The R random number generators and also all the other functions for probability distributions (not only rnorm but also dnorm, pnorm, and qnorm and so forth for other distributions) are callable from C (but not Fortran, see however the section of Writing R Extensions about Calling C from FORTRAN and vice versa on how to write Fortran calls to C functions that call the R random number generators).

Here is an example (downloadable as baz.c).

#include <R.h>
#include <Rmath.h>

void baz(int *nin, double *sin, double *tin, double *x)
    int n = nin[0];
    double s = sin[0];
    double t = tin[0];

    int i;


    for (i = 0; i < n; i++)
        x[i] = rbeta(s, t);


Also the statements


must be done before and after (respectively) all calls to random number functions (in this example rbeta). With that done, the random numbers work in C just like in R.

rbeta(5, 1.5, 2.5)
baz <- function(n, s, t) {
    .C("baz", n = as.integer(n), s = as.double(s), t = as.double(t),
        x = double(n))$x
baz(5, 1.5, 2.5)

(note, exactly the same random numbers when using the same seeds).

And how does one know how to call the C function rbeta (which is not the R function of the same name, rather the C function that the R function calls)? Unfortunately there is no API documentation, so one must RTFS.

On our computers, the source code happens to be (when this was written) in the directory /APPS/src/R-2.6.2. For example, the source code for rbeta is in /APPS/src/R-2.6.2/src/nmath/rbeta.c, but we may move it (the directory name changes with each version), and if you aren't here, you will have to figure out where it is locally or get it from CRAN.

Error Messages from C

Use the R error or warning function. They work just like printf but produce an R error or warning as the case may be. Here is an example (downloadable as qux.c).

#include <R.h>

void qux(int *nin, double *x)
    int n = nin[0];

    int i;

    if (n < 1)
        error("arg n was %d, must be positive\n", n);

    for (i = 0; i < n; i++)
        x[i] = x[i] * x[i];

And try it out.

.C("qux", n = as.integer(0), x = as.double(1:4))

Questions or comments to: Charles Geyer charlie@stat.umn.edu